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Classroom Practices


These articles contain ideas from teachers on how to improve the quality of student learning during assessment, or how to assess for a wider range of skills. Assessment may not be the main feature of the article, but we have only included articles where it has some prominence.


Class Discussion

These articles contain PEEL teachers’ descriptions of ways to encourage and promote quality class discussion. They may describe lessons where either class discussion was a dominant feature of the lesson(s) or lessons that provided the basis and stimulation for quality discussion.



These articles include those describing both traditional, formal debates as well as other ways of structuring discussions where there is an emphasis on argument and counter argument.


Other Oral Work

These articles include oral work other than class discussion or debates, including (among others) formal presentations, other oral assessments tasks, peer and cross-age tutoring, and speaking in a LOTE. They do not include question-asking, which is listed as Procedure C4.


Analysing Non-Print Materials

These articles describe ways of stimulating students to analyse and search for rich meaning in non-print materials such as maps, diagrams, photos, pictures and television advertisements.


Reading Literature

These articles focus on what English teachers would include as literature: all works of fiction including fictional films. Works called faction could also be included. The articles do not include documentaries (see Using Videos) and biographies where the emphasis is on factual content. (See Understanding Other Text Material.)


Understanding Other Text Material

In these articles, the text material to be understood is (primarily) printed words and neither something that will be part of student notes (see Note-Taking) nor a piece of literature (see Reading Literature). Typically it involves textbooks or articles.The focus here is on building meaning for the text.


Drill and Practice

These articles include those which aim to improve students’ thinking when doing tasks such as memorising a list as well as when doing numerical exercises and using other skills that require practice. These activities commonly involve very low-level thinking and the articles in this field all aim to make such practice more consistent with the goals of PEEL. They do not include articles that describe application or creative activities which require students to apply learned skills to a new area.


Field Work/Excursions

These articles involve getting the students out of their normal classroom environment.  One common problem here is building links back to classroom activities and ideas.


Games and Puzzles

These articles describe ways of using games and puzzles in the PEEL classroom, many of them involve taking an existing game like Pictionary or Bingo, and applying it to school content,often as a form of revision or practice. They also describe ways by which games and puzzles can be used to introduce new content.



Articles selected here must do more than just report on a task set for homework, per se.  We have restricted this to reports of tasks that students found particularly engaging to do at home, or that could not be (easily) be done at school – i.e. there was a need for home work, or where the home aspect clearly gave students more opportunities for independent decision making .  We also include a few articles that reflect on homework as an activity.


Getting Started/Introducing New Information

These articles discuss ways in which teachers have introduced a major new topic that does not have links to the previous lesson.


Group Work

In these articles, teachers report ways in which they have been able to engage students in quality groupwork-where the students actively discuss the work, using hypothetical,exploratory talk and listening seriously to each other’s ideas. The articles coded for this field are those that provide advice about how teachers can achieve quality group work.


Library/Research Skills

These articles describe ways in which teachers have improved some aspect of a library assignment, or improved students’ skills in library research, such as processing of library sources. They also include articles which increase the level of student engagement in research, such as students’ owning their own questions.



All these articles have a focus on the notes in students’ book. They describe ways of actively processing notes, creating notes, and any activity which challenges the idea that copying equals learning.


Practical Work

By practical work we mean hands-on tasks involving equipment, apparatus and/or physical skills. These are important in subjects such as Art, Home Economics, Physical Education, Science, Technology and Textiles. Often students have instructions to follow and they often follow these with very little reflection about what they are doing, the purpose of the task and its links with theory, as well as with a high level of dependence on the teacher to sort out problems. These articles describe ways of tackling these problems


Problem Solving Tasks

In these articles, the focus is on the students finding the way to solve a problem or complete a task. Students have to consider alternatives. This often requires open-ended lateral thinking. This category does not include articles where students are solving routine numerical exercises; these are coded under Drill and Practice.


Remote or online learning

These are articles stimulated by school lockdowns due to the COVID 19 pandemic. They describe teachers setting up tasks and structures for students to learn at home with online and often parental support.


Parent-Teacher Meetings

These articles either offer ways of enriching or restructuring the formal parent- teacher meetings that occur each term in most schools, or report other ways of including parents as active participants in the learning of their children.


Revision/Feedback Understanding

These articles include activities such as going back to previously learned information in the lead up to a test; bringing together a number of ideas; and looking at previously studied information in a new way. They also include ways of encouraging students to reflect on what they have learned, identify key points and giving students feedback on their understanding of the work.


Starting the Year With a Class

The title is self-explanatory.


Unit of Work

These articles discuss ways by which teachers have developed a unit of work or sequences that include a number of different activities.


Using Information Technology

The articles report ways of using information technology to improve learning in classes that are not formal IT classes, but that focus on using aspects of IT to improve learning in other content areas. Articles dealing with teaching IT as a subject, which also often contain innovative ways of using IT, can be found under Information Technology in Subject Areas.


Using Video

Watching videos can be a very passive activity, another common problem is that videos typically present a lot of information very quickly. These articles report ways of tackling these problems. The focus is on either an imaginative use of the video, e.g. sound off/stop for prediction, or a strategy for processing the video.


Using Visual Aids/Posters

Some of these articles involve visual aids that the teacher brings into the classroom, a number of these involve posters that are permanently in the classroom and used regularly to aid and improve learning. Other articles involve the students, either individually or as a class, constructing non-print representation of part of the work.


Writing Skills

These articles focus on improving learning when students are learning to write and edit texts of various forms as well as to analyse texts for structure, style and linguistic devices.They include all the articles coded in Group H: Procedures for LearningWriting Skills (as well as many others).