8 Groups of Teaching Procedures


By school knowledge we mean the ideas, terms, and constructs that teachers bring into the classroom from the domain (Science, History etc). These procedures stimulate students to think about what the ideas are, whether or not they understand them, how they are connected to each other and how they could be expressed or represented in other ways.

These procedures allow both the students and the teachers to identify existing conceptions, ideas and beliefs. These then form the starting point for subsequent extension, restructuring (if necessary) and linking to school knowledge.

These procedures encourage students to ask questions, offer ideas and look for the extent of their understanding. They promote an improved learning environment in the classroom which involves increased trusts between teachers and students, and between students. Students become more willing to listen to, and learn from each other.

These procedures are intended to foster and promote the active processing of text material before, during and after reading. Text material can include pieces of literature, online materials, textbooks, handouts, teacher notes and students' own notes.

These procedures are intended to help students analyse problems, plan their solution, and search for the reasons behind the algorithms they use. Most of the articles focus on numerical problems, but the procedures are applicable in many non-numerical problems.

These procedures aim to promote reflection about learning in ways which, compared with the other groups, are more general and less directly linked to content. Variously, these procedures encourage students to monitor their learning and work more independently: to reflect on what they need to know, how they might tackle a task, what they are doing, why and how they are doing it, whether they understand it and what they have learnt about both content and aspects of quality learning.

These procedures aim to reflect the goals of active learning in assessment tasks. They encourage students to learn from their mistakes and provide ways of sharing some responsibility and control of assessment with students. Another way of putting this is that collectively, these procedures help shift from assessment of learning to assessment for learning and, in some cases, assessment as learning.

These procedures encourage students to reflect on the structure of texts, of different genres and provide scaffolds to help them plan, construct and edit their own texts. Some of these procedures help students understand grammatical structures and rules.

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